Minggu, 29 Maret 2009

Eurycoma longifolia atau Tongkat Ali atau Pasak Bumi

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Simaroubaceae
Genus: Eurycoma
Species: E. longifolia

Binomial name
Eurycoma longifolia

Eurycoma longifolia (a.k.a. Tongkat Ali or Pasak Bumi) is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia and Malaysia.

Eurycoma longifolia is a small evergreen treelet growing to 15 m (49 ft) tall, with spirally arranged, pinnate leaves 20-40 cm (8-16 inches) long with 13-41 leaflets. The flowers are dioecious, with male and female flowers on different trees; they are produced in large panicles, each flower with 5-6 very small petals. The fruit is green ripening dark red, 1-2 cm long and 0.5-1 cm broad.

Eurycoma longifolia has become popular for its alleged testosterone-enhancing properties. It has therefore been included in some herbal supplements for bodybuilders. Historically, South East Asia has utilised the herb for its suggested antimalarial, antipyretic, antiulcer, cytotoxic and aphrodisiac properties.

Some scientific studies suggest that it enhances sexual characteristics and performance in animals.[2][3][4] However, most of these studies were conducted by the same researchers, so more research is needed.

In other studies, fractions of Eurycoma longifolia extract have been shown to induce apoptosis in breast-cancer cells[5] and to be cytotoxic to lung-cancer cells.[6]

The British Journal of Sports Medicine published the results of a scientific study in 2003, which showed that Eurycoma longifolia caused increased muscle strength and size when compared to a placebo.[7] This may demonstrate the anabolic properties of Tongkat Ali but again more research is needed. Some athletes and body builders now use Tongkat Ali extract in the hope that it will act as a testosterone-booster, to improve muscle size, strength, and performance without drugs.

Tongkat ali is sold in various extract ratios, with 1:50, 1:100, and 1:200 being most common. It should be noted that a higher extract ratio does not necessarily mean that an extract is more potent. At a higher extraction ratio, some of the active ingredients may even be lost, as the focus if often reflective of a pursuit of patent rights than achieving efficacious end product.

On the other hand, some products on the market do not state any specific extract ratio, and then it may be anything between 1:2 and 1:10. Furthermore, buyers should be aware that tongkat ali is one of the most expensive herbals sold internationally. Thus, capsules or tablets that combine tongkat ali with other ingredients and do not indicate definite quantities of each ingredient may contain just minuscule amounts of tongkat ali. The market demand for Tongkat Ali is growing, and even though plantations are being created every year, demand still outweighs supplies. Trees in their native habitat are rather scarce, and are further endangered by the common practice of wild harvesting.

^ "Eurycoma longifolia information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?417514. Retrieved on 2008-03-14.
^ Ang HH, Ngai TH, Tan TH (2003). "Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on sexual qualities in middle aged male rats". Phytomedicine 10 (6-7): 590–3. doi:10.1078/094471103322331881. PMID 13678248.
^ Ang HH, Cheang HS, Yusof AP. (2000). "Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) on the initiation of sexual performance of inexperienced castrated male rats". Exp Anim 49 (1): 35–8. doi:10.1538/expanim.49.35. PMID 10803359.
^ Ang HH, Lee KL, Kiyoshi M (2004). "Sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats after oral administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack". J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 15 (3-4): 303–9. PMID 15803965.
^ Tee TT, & Azimahtol HL. (2005). "Induction of apoptosis by Eurycoma longifolia jack extracts". Anticancer Res 25 (3B): 2205–13. PMID 16158965.
^ Kuo PC, Shi LS, Damu AG, Su CR, Huang CH, Ke CH, Wu JB, Lin AJ, Bastow KF, Lee KH, Wu TS. (2003). "Cytotoxic and antimalarial beta-carboline alkaloids from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia". J Nat Prod 66 (10): 1324–7. doi:10.1021/np030277n. PMID 14575431.
^ Hamzah S, Yusof A (October 2003). "The Ergogenic Effects of Eurycoma Longifolia Jack: A Pilot Study". Br. J. Sports Med. 37: 464–70. doi:10.1136/bjsm.37.5.464. http://bjsm.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/37/5/464. - Abstract of study listed as item 007

Source from wikipedia

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